Computer History

Today who are not familiar with computers?. Sophisticated tools that can make just about anything, create working on Office work to help with the process at the factory. In addition to work, the computer is also date to the entertainment and game play. The computer is a tool that is used to manipulate the data according to the commandments which have been formulated.
The computer was originally used to describe people who perform arithmetic calculations with or without a hearing aid, but the meaning of the word is then transferred to the machine itself. From the beginning, information processing is almost exclusively associated with arithmetic problems, but modern computers are used for many tasks that are not related to mathematics. Yuk we see history of computer development from scratch or from year to year.

Computer Definition
The computer is a tool that is used to manipulate the data according to the commandments which have been formulated. The computer was originally used to describe people who perform arithmetic calculations, the forefront with or without a hearing aid, but the meaning of the word is then transferred to the machine itself. From the beginning, information processing is almost exclusively associated with arithmetic problems, but modern computers are used for many tasks that are not related to mathematics.

Broadly speaking, the computer can be defined as an electronic equipment that consists of several components, which can cooperate between components with each other to produce an information based on existing programs and data. As for the computer components are included: Screen Monitor, CPU, Keyboard, Mouse and Printer (as a supplement). Without computer printers can still do its job as a data processor, however limited to visible on-screen yet in the form of print outs (paper).

In such a definition there are tools like slide rule, this type of mechanical calculators ranging from honest and so on, until all the contemporary electronic computer. The term is better suited to a broader sense such as "computer" is "process information" or "information processing systems".

Nowadays, computers have been increasingly sophisticated. But, before the computer is not too small, sophisticated, and as light as cool as now. In the history of computers, there are 5 generations in the history of the computer.

Computer generation
The First Generation
With the onset of the second world war, the countries involved in the war are trying to develop computers for potential strategic owned a computer. This increases funding development of computers as well as accelerate the progress of computer techniques. In 1941, Konrad Zuse, an engineer from Germany to build a computer, Z3, for designing airplanes and missiles.

The Allies also made other progress in the development of computer power. In 1943, the United Kingdom completed its secret code-breaking computer called Colossus to break the secret codes used Germany. Impact-making Colossus does not affect the development of the computer industry too is due to two reasons. First, Colossus is not a versatile computer (General-purpose computer), it was only designed to solve the secret code. Second, the existence of this machine kept confidential until a decade after the war ended.

Work done by the Americans at that time produced a progress in another. Howard h. Aiken (1900-1973), an engineer who works with IBM Harvard, succeeded in producing an electronic calculator for u.s. Navy. The calculator-sized football field and a half long and has a range of cable along 500 miles. The Harvard-IBM Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator, or Mark I, is an electronic relay computer. He uses an electromagnetic signal to drive the mechanical components. These machines operate with slow (he needs 3-5 seconds for each calculation) and inflexible (in order of calculations can not be converted). The calculator can perform calculations and equations aritmatics Basic is more complex.

The development of another computer at present is the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC), made by cooperation between the United States Government and the University of Pennsylvania. Consists of 18,000 vacuum tubes, 70,000 resistors, and 5 million point solder, a computer is a machine that consumes the power of 160kW.

This computer was designed by John Presper Eckert (1919-1995) and John w. Mauchly (1907-1980), ENIAC is a versatile computer (general purpose computer) who work 1,000 times faster than the Mark I.

In the mid-1940s, John von Neumann (1903-1957), joined the team of the University of Pennsylvania in an attempt to establish the concept of computer design of up to 40 years are still used in computer engineering. Von Neumann designed the Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer (EDVAC) in 1945 with a memory to accommodate both programs or data. This technique allows the computer to stop at some point and then resume his job back. The primary key is the von Neumann architecture of the central processing unit (CPU), which allows all functions to be coordinated through a single computer single source. In 1951, UNIVAC I (Universal Automatic Computer I) made by Remington Rand, became the first commercial computer that utilizes a Von Neumann architecture model.

Both United States Census Agencies and General Electric have a UNIVAC. One of the impressive result achieved by its success in predicting the UNIVAC is victory Dwilight d. Eisenhower in the 1952 presidential election.

The first generation of computer with the fact that operating instructions are created specifically for a specific task. Each computer has a different binary code program called "machine language" (machine language). This causes the computer difficult to limit programmed and its velocity. Another feature of the first generation of computers is the use of vacuum tube (which makes the computer on this period is sufficiently large) and cylinders for magnetic data storage.

The Second Generation
In 1948, the invention of transistors greatly influenced the development of the computer. Transistors replaced vacuum tubes in television, radio, and computers. As a result, the size of the electrical machinery decreased drastically.

Transistor computer was adopted starting in 1956. Other inventions include the development of magnetic core memory-aiding the development of the second generation of computers that are smaller, faster, more reliable, and more energy efficient than its predecessor. The first engine that makes use of this new technology is a supercomputer. IBM supercomputer named Stretch, make and Sprery-Rand makes a computer named LARC. These computers, developed for laboratories of Atomic Energy, can handle large amounts of data, an ability that is desperately needed by researchers. These machines are very expensive and tend to be too complex for business computing needs, thus limiting its popularity. There are only two LARC who ever installed and used: one at Lawrence Radiation Labs in Livermore, California, and more in U.s. Navy Research and Development Center in Washington D.C. the second generation Computers replace machine language to assembly language. Assembly language is a language which uses the acronym-abbreviation for binary code.

In the early 1960s, a second generation computer emerged successful in the field of business, at the University, and in Government. The second generation of computers is a computer that fully use transistors. They also have components that can be associated with a computer at the moment: a printer, disk storage, memory, operating system, and programs.

One important example of this is the computer 1401 widely accepted among the industry. In 1965, almost all businesses-big business using a second generation computer for financial information proses.

Programs stored on your computer and is programming language is in it gives flexibility to your computer. This flexibility increases performance at a reasonable price for business use. With this concept, the computer can print invoice purchases and consumer product design and then run or calculate the salary list. Some programming languages start popping up at that time. Programming languages Common Business-Oriented Language (COBOL) and Formula Translator (FORTRAN) began to commonly used. The programming language is replaced with an intricate machine code words, sentences, and mathematical formulas that are more easily understood by humans. This makes it easy for someone to program and manage the computer. A wide range of emerging careers (programmer, systems analyst, and an expert computer system). Software Industry also emerged and flourished during this second generation computers.

The Third Generation
Although the transistor is in many ways surpass the vacuum tube, transistor, however, generate heat, which could potentially damage the internal parts of the computer. Quartz stone (quartz rock) eliminates this problem. Jack Kilby, an engineer at Texas Instruments, developed the integrated circuit (IC: integrated circuit) in 1958. IC combines three electronic components in a tiny silicon disc made of quartz sand. The scientists then managed to include more components into a single chip called a semiconductor. As a result, computers are becoming increasingly smaller due to the components can be compacted in the chip. Other third generation computers advancement is the use of the operating system (operating system) which allows the engine to run a variety of different programs simultaneously with a main program that monitors and coordinates the computer memory.

Fourth Generation
After the goal the development of the IC, it becomes more clear: downplay the size of circuits and electrical components. Large Scale Integration (LSI) can load hundreds of components in a chip. In the 1980s, Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) containing thousands of components in a single chip.

-Ultra Large Scale Integration (ULSI) increase that amount to millions. The ability to put up such a lot of components in a puck that berukurang half pieces of coin pushing the descent of prices and sizes. It also increases the power of work, efficiency and keterandalan computers. Chip Intel 4004 made in 1971membawa progress in IC with put the whole component from a computer (central processing unit, memory, and input/output control) in a very small chip. Previously, IC created to work on a specific task-specific. Now, a microprocessor can be produced and then programmed to meet the entire needs of the desired. Shortly thereafter, every household devices such as microwaves, ovens, televisions, and automobiles with electronic fuel injection (EFI) equipped with microprocessor.

Such developments allow ordinary people to use a regular computer. The computer is no longer to be domination of large companies or Government agencies. In the mid-1970s, computer manufacturers offer their computer products to the general public. These computers, called the predecessor, sold with a software package that is easy to use by laymen. The software is the most popular at the moment it is word processing and spreadsheet programs. In the early 1980s, such as the Atari 2600 video game attracted the attention of consumers on a home computer that is more sophisticated and can be programmed.

In 1981, IBM introduced the use of Personal Computer (PC) for use in the home, Office, and school. The number of PCS used jumped from 2 million units in the year 1981 to be 5.5 million units in 1982. Ten years later, 65 million PCS in use. Computers continue its evolution toward smaller size, from a computer that is on the table (desktop computer) to a computer that can be inserted into bag (laptop), or even a computer that can be gripped (device).

IBM PC to compete with Apple's Macintosh computer market is contested. Apple Macintosh became famous for his computer graphics in your systems, while rivals still using text-based computer. Macintosh also uses mouse your devices.

At present, we know the way IBM compatible with CPU usage: IBM PC/486, Pentium, Pentium II, Pentium III, Pentium IV (Series of CPUS made by Intel). Also we know AMD k6, Athlon, etc. This is all included in the fourth generation computers.

Along with the proliferation of the use of computers at work, new ways to explore potential continues to be developed. Along with increasing the strength of a small computer, computers that can be connected simultaneously in a network to share memory, software, information, and also to be able to communicate with one another. Computer network allows a single computer to form electronic cooperation process to complete a task. By using direct cabling (also referred to as a Local Area Network or LAN), or [phone cord, these networks can be developed into a very large.

Fifth Generation
Define computer becomes quite difficult fifth generation since this stage is still very young. Examples of imaginative computer fifth generation is a fictional computer HAL9000 from the novel by Arthur c. Clarke's 2001: a Space Odyssey. IT displays all of the desired function of a fifth-generation computer. With artificial intelligence (artificial intelligence or AI), IT could have enough reason to do chat with humans, using visual input, and learn from his experience on its own.

While it may be the realization of the HAL9000 is still far from a reality, many of the functions that have been realized. Some computers can receive instructions orally and be able to imitate human reason. The ability to translate foreign languages are also possible. It seems so simple. However these facilities being much more complicated than expected when programmers realize that human understanding is heavily dependent on context and understanding rather than simply translating the words directly.

A lot of progress in the field of computer design and technology that enables the creation of increasingly fifth generation computer. Two engineering progress mainly parallel processing is the ability, which will replace the model non Neumann. Models non Neumann will be replaced with a system that is able to coordinate a lot of the CPU to work simultaneously. Another superconductor technology advances are enabling the flow of electricity without any resistance whatsoever, who can accelerate the speed of information.

Japan is a country that is well known in the jargon of socialization and fifth generation computer project. ICOT institutes (Institute for new Computer Technology) was also established to achieve them. Many newspapers stating that this project has failed, but some of the other information that the success of this fifth generation computer project will bring changes to the new paradigm of computerization in the world.

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